The New York Times reports that approximately 6% of school age children have some degree of this disorder. Like PDD and sensory processing disorder, DCD is hard to define.
The DSM-IV criteria follows:
A. Performance in daily activities that require motor coordination is substantially below that expected given the person's chronological age and measured Intelligence. This may be manifested by marked delays in achieving motor milestones (e.g., walking, crawling. sitting), dropping things, "clumsiness," poor performance in sports, or poor handwriting.In light of C (above), technically, Brad's PDD diagnosis should rule out DCD. (Or maybe it's the other way around?) Moving on.
B. The disturbance in Criterion A significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living.
C. The disturbance is not due to a general medical condition (e.g., cerebral palsy, hemiplegia. or muscular dystrophy) and does not meet criteria for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder.
D. If Mental Retardation is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it.
Wiki describes the motor challenges associated with DCD as follows:
- Poor timing.
- Poor balance (sometimes even falling over in mid-step). Tripping over one's own feet is also not uncommon.
- Difficulty combining movements into a controlled sequence.
- Difficulty remembering the next movement in a sequence.
- Problems with spatial awareness, or proprioception.
- Some people with dyspraxia have trouble picking up and holding onto simple objects due to poor muscle tone.
- This disorder can cause an individual to be clumsy to the point of knocking things over and bumping into people accidentally.
- Some dyspraxics have difficulty in determining left from right.
- Cross-laterality, ambidexterity, and a shift in the preferred hand are also common in people with dyspraxia.
- Dyspraxics may also have trouble determining the distance between them and other objects.
- Some dyspraxics have difficulty achieving and maintaining continence either of bladder or bowel or both. Bedwetting or nocturnal enuresis is common.
- Difficulties controlling the speech organs.
- Difficulties making speech sounds
- Difficulty sequencing sounds within a word
- Forming words into sentences
- Difficulty controlling breathing and phonation.
- Slow language development.
- Difficulty with feeding
Update: The DCD label was included in Brad's "impression" report; it was part of his official diagnosis.